*We have to use the verb “TO BE” in the same tense as the lexic verb of the active sentence. And the past participle of the lexic verb.
*The subject of the active sentence will be the agent complement in the passive sentence; the complement of the active sentence will be the subject in the passive sentence.
For example; Cervantes wrote Don Quixote.
Don Quixote was written by Cervantes.
-wrote = past simple.
To be in the past simple: was.
Past participle of write: written.
it´s always introduced by the preposition “by”, followed by the
If the complement is a pronoun, it will be: me /you /him /her /us
*There are some sentences with two complements (also called objects). They are usually a complement of person and a thing, animal,… In this case it is more common to use the complement of person as the subject of the passive and the other complement after the verb.
For example: David gave me three tickets for a concert.
I was given three tickets for a concert by David.
It could also be: three tickets for a concert were given me by David.
- Present simple: am / is / are + participle
- Present continuous: am / is / are + being + participle
- Past simple: was /were + participle.
- Past continuous: was /were + being + participle.
- Present perfect: have / has + been + participle.
- Present perfect continuous: have / has + been + being + participle. —not very used.
- Past perfect: had been + participle.
- Past perfect continuous: had been + being + participle.—not very used.
- Future simple: will be + participle.
- Future continuous: will be + being + participle.
- Future perfect: will have been + participle.
- Future perfect continuous: will have been + being + participle. —-not very used.
- Conditional simple: would be + participle.
- Conditional continuous: would be + being + participle.
- Conditional perfect: would have been + participle. — not very used.
- Conditional perfect continuous: would have been + being + participle.—-not very used.
*Put the verb in passive, in the tense shown in brackets:
- My car __________ (damage) last night.(past simple)
- This computer _________ (make) in the U.S.A.(present simple)
- The machine ___________ (make) in Scotland.(present simple)
- The president ____________ (kill) last night.(past simple)
- The money ______________ (change) into dollars at the bank.(present simple)
- The house _____________ (paint) every year. (present simple)
- Several people _____________ (hurt) in an accident last night. (past simple)
- The children ___________ (give) some food. (present simple)
- The cars _____________ (take) to Australia.(future simple)
- She ___________ (give) a present.(past simple)
- Cheese ___________ (make) from milk.(present simple)
*Rewrite these sentences, active into passive. Some of them have two complements, so they have two solutions:
- I clean the garages every day.
- Someone has given him a lot of money.
- The police arrested two hundred students.
Two hundred students ………..
- We export this computer to seven countries.
This computer ………..
- They have invited all the students in the school.
- They send two million books to America every year.
- We had told him not to be late again.
- Her father gave her a doll for her birthday.
- They were painting the outside of the ship when the accident happened.
- You should keep the flowers in a warm sunny place.
- You mustn’t use the machine after 3.oo p.m.
*Rewrite these sentences, passive into active:
- “Romeo and Juliet” was written by Shakespeare.
- Mr. Douglas was questioned by the police.
- They were brought a new house.
- Two hundred people were being invited to my wedding.
- The bomb was being carried to a safe place when it exploded.
- The children had been told about the party.
- Students are expected not to talk during the examination.
*Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the passive:
- I can´t lend you my jacket because it __________________ (clean)
- You ______________ (not allow) to park here.
- The letter seemed ________________ (write) by a child.
- The house _____________ (not sell) yet.
- When the teacher arrived, the class ______________ (use) by other students.
*Write the following into passive:
- Bad weather has delayed the trains.
- Charles Dickens wrote Bleak House.
- Someone has stolen my watch.
- He broke his leg in a skiing accident.
- While we are away, the neighbours will water our plants.
*Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tenses suggested:
- This picture ____________ (admire).Present simple.
- His leg ___________ (hurt) in an accident.Past simple.
- This exercise _____________ (do) very carefully.Present continuous.
- The box _____________ (not open) for the last hundred years.Present perfect.
- The Tower of London ______________ (formerly use) as a prison.Past simple.
- Two of my dinner plates _____________ (break).Present perfect .
- A big battle ____________ (fight) here 200 years ago.Past simple.
- You _____________ (invite) to lunch tomorrow.Present perfect.
- This play _____________ (forget) in a few years´ time.Future simple.
- This bridge _____________ (build) last year.Past simple.
- My brother ____________ (never beat) at tennis.Present perfect.
- English ___________ (speak) all over the world.Present simple.
- ______ any questions _______ (ask) about me?
- The answers must ___________ (write) on one side of the paper only.Infinitive.
- These books must _______________ (not take away).Infinitive.
- I __________ (punish) for something I didn´t do.Past simple.
- Milk ____________ (use) to make butter and cheese.Present simple.
- You ____________ (want) to help lay the table.Present simple.
- A pupil __________(praise) when he works hard.Present simple.
- The stolen car ___________ (find) in another town.Present perfect.
- Hats and coats must ____________ (leave) in the cloakroom. Infinitive.
- The piano ___________ (play) far too loudly.Past continuous.
- The matter ____________ (discuss) tomorrow.Future simple.
- Progress ____________ (make) everyday in the world of science.Present simple.
- The chickens ____________ (not feed) this morning.Past simple.
- Some ink ___________ (spill) on the carpet.Present perfect.
- She said that some ink ______________ (spill) on her carpet.Past perfect.
- Not a sound __________ (hear).Past simple.
- This door can ___________ (easily mend).Infinitive.
- What ___________ (do) about this?Present perfect.
- The door _____________ (already shut).Present perfect.
- ________ your question ___________ (answer)?Present perfect.
- The book __________ (finish) next month.Future simple.
- He saw that the table ___________ (push) into the corner.Past perfect.
- The article _____________ (beautifully write).Present perfect.
HIGHER LEVELS (COMPOUND SENTENCES) INTERMEDIATE:
*Put the following sentences into the PASSIVE VOICE. Some of them may have 2 objects:
- They gave my little sister a ticket, too.
- People will show the visitors the new buildings.
- Someone has already paid the electrician for his work.
- They promise us higher wages.
- Somebody will tell you what time the train leaves.
- Someone ordered the prisoners to stand up.
- Somebody recommended me to another doctor.
- Somebody taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
- They will allow each boy a second plate of ice-cream.
- The authorities refused Cyril a passport.
- They will ask us all several questions.
- When we first met, they had already offered me a job at the bank.
- Someone will read you another chapter next time.
- They requested the stranger to leave the meeting.
- This is the third time they have written to us about this.
- They still deny women the right to vote in some countries.
- They have made my uncle a captain.
- They asked the rest of us to be there at eight o´clock.
- The others told the new students where to sit.
- Somebody is showing Maisie how to bath a baby.
- She showed the visitors the new baby.
- Someone asked the student a very difficult question.
- We must look into this matter.
- People speak well of my friend Cyril.
- They told her to be quick.
- Someone reads to the old lady every evening.
- Somebody told the students to wait outside.
- Somebody promised me a bicycle if I passed my examination.
- You must work for success.
- Somebody gave her a box of chocolates for her birthday.
- I told Cyril never to come here again.
- They gave me 10 p. change at the shop.
- She promised him a book.
- It is time they brought the cows in.
- They told me to go away.
- Nobody has slept in that room for years.
- She will look after the little girl well.
- A car ran over our dog.
- The teacher promised Mary a prize if she worked well.
- A friend told me the news this morning.
- Unkind remarks easily upset Maisie.
- Somebody must finish the work.
- Nobody can repair this broken vase.
- We ought to do something about this.
- The examiner set different questions.
- People play football all over the world.
- Nobody has made any mistakes.
- Beethoven composed this piece.
- A guide pointed out the Pyramids to me.
- Somebody has left the gate open, and so the horses have run away.
- Somebody must do something for these poor men.
- She fell into the water because somebody pushed her.
- People will simply laugh at you for your trouble.
- They carried her into the house.
- They showed me a beautiful drawing.
- Nobody has answered my question properly.
- They left the wounded behind.
- Somebody has brought this child up very badly.
- They didn´t tell me the truth about the situation.
- They asked Mo why she went about with a silly person like me!
- Have you bought a dictionary of Russian?
INTERMEDIATE / ADVANCED
- Somebody has found the boy the people wanted.
- People ought not to speak about such things in public.
- The wind blew his hat down the street.
- They will take her to hospital tomorrow.
- The police gave me 5 pounds reward.
- An unseen hand opened the window.
- They will send Joe to prison.
- People should make lessons more interesting for children.
- They had eaten all the dinner before they finished the conversation.
- Somebody left the light on all night.
- We shall lock the house up for the summer and the old gardener will look after it.
- No one can answer your question.
- Somebody has spilt the milk I prepared for the cat.